Starting July 1, 2009, all the economic operators involved in import, export and transit in the European Union are obliged to obtain an Economic Operator Registration and Identification (EORI) number. The economic operators are defined as all the legal entities performing businesses regulated by the EU Customs legislation. This means that even though the company is not registered in an EU country, it has to obtain such a number if it wishes to perform import, export or transit operations in the EU territory.
The EORI is an unique reference number that has mandatory usage in all the electronic communications involving Customs and other government agencies responsible with international movement goods. This number usage applies in all EU member states.
The legal framework of the EORI in the European Community is contained in the Regulation (EC) no. 312/2009, it is part of the stipulations made by the European Council established in the Community Customs Code and was published in EU's Official Journal number L98 on April 17, 2009. In Romania, there was issued an A.N.A.F. Vice-president Order number 1554/2009 for approving the technical standards for registering in Custom purposes the economic operators and other entities, published in the Romanian Official Gazette, Part I, no. 429 from June 24, 2009.
In Romania, EORI numbers are obtained from the General Directorate of Customs which registers and assigns these unique numbers. The companies have to address the Regional Direction for excise and customs operations that cover the territorial jurisdiction in which the applicants are established or at custom offices (here only in exceptional cases). The regional offices are located in the following cities: Bucharest, Timisoara, Iasi, Brasov, Galati, Craiova, Oradea and Constanta.
In order to obtain the EORI number, the applicant must submit an application request and the documents mentioned in the Order no. 691/2009:
· the certificate of registration issued by the Romanian Trade Register.
· the document showing the registered fiscal residence, as appropriate, in the event that it does not correspond to that specified in the certificate.
· the registration certificate for VAT purposes issued by the Ministry of Finance, if applicable.
· ID copies in case of individuals.
The term for issuing an EORI number by the Regional Directorate for Excise and Customs operations is about 2-3 days. The notification for the applicant is sent via e-mail (at the address indicated by the applicant) or at the headquarters of the Regional Directorate. Any changes in the data contained in the application or the document submitted must be notified at the competent regional directorate by the EORI number holder.
Once you have obtained an EORI number, you will notice that the structure of the EORI number is composed of an country code consisting of two alphabetic characters (ISO alpha 2) followed by a single national identifier State - up to 15 alphanumeric characters. In Romania, the unique structure of the EORI number for resident companies (companies from Romania) was set to be the unique identifier (CUI) - the same number assigned by the Romanian Trade Register upon registering a new Romanian company.